Skinexigence

References

Validation d'appareils

PETITJEAN A, SAINTHILLIER JM, MAC-MARY S, MURET P, CLOSS B, GHARBI T, HUMBERT Ph.
Skin radiance: how to quantify? Validation of an optical method.
Skin Res Technol2007 ; 13 : 2-8.

Abstract: BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to validate an optic device used to measure the quantity of light reflected by the skin, which depends on the brightness of the skin. METHODS: This apparatus gives three parameters, called Complexion/diffusion (Cd), Cr (Complexion/reflection) and Complexion/specular position (Csp). Measurements were carried out on the forehead (slightly rounded surface) and the cheekbone (angular surface). To estimate the repeatability and the reproducibility of each parameter, two female subjects (one with a dull complexion and the other with a glowing complexion) and three operators participated in the study. To investigate repeatability, each operator performed 10 consecutive measurements on both zones. To investigate inter-investigator reproducibility, the operators performed the measurements alternately. To investigate day-to-day reproducibility, these measures were achieved during three visits at a 2-day interval, at D1, D3 and D5. To estimate the sensitivity and the specificity, 30 females participated in the study (15 in the dull complexion group and 15 in the glowing complexion group). RESULTS: Cd was repeatable (variation coefficient <20%), day-to-day reproducible on both sites (generally P>0.05) but not inter-investigators reproducible (generally P<0.05). The sensitivity was 93% on the forehead and 80% on the cheekbone; the specificity was 87% on the forehead and 60% on the cheekbone. Cr was repeatable (variation coefficient <5%), day-to-day reproducible (P>0.05) and not inter-investigators reproducible (generally P<0.05). The sensitivity was 93% on the forehead and 80% on the cheekbone; the specificity was 87% on the forehead and 80% on the cheekbone. Csp was not repeatable (variation coefficient >5%) on both the studied zones and for the three investigators. CONCLUSION: The repeatability and the day-to-day reproducibility were satisfying for the Cd and Cr parameters on both the studied sites. The sensitivity and the specificity were satisfying for both parameters on both sites, except for the specificity of the Cd parameter on the cheekbone. Therefore, this apparatus is suitable to follow-up an evolution on both the studied sites, but we recommend: (a) that the same trained investigator always performs the measurements, (b) to privilege the forehead in particular for a classification (dull or glowing).
 
KORICHI R, MAC-MARY S, ELKHYAT A, SAINTHILLIER JM, RÄNSCH P, HUMBERT Ph, VIVIANT E, GAZANO G, MAHE Ch
Development of a new sensor based on micro-electromechanical systems for objective in vivo measurement of the cutaneous temperature : application to foundations.
Skin Res Technol2006, 12 : 206-210.

Abstract:The purpose of this work was to develop a new sensor for objective in vivo measurement of the cutaneous temperature based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and to compare these performances with those of a classical thermocouple. Research on this new sensor was carried out to allow the quantification of the thermal properties of the made-up skin. METHODS: Sixteen female subjects divided into two different age groups (18-35 and >50 years old) were recruited for this study. Several zones of the face and forearms were made up at random with foundations containing or not a thermoregulator raw material. The quantity of foundation applied on the skin was standardized and measurements were carried out first before make-up, and then 10 s and 5 min after make-up. The new sensor and the thermocouple were used successively on each zone. The cutaneous temperature was expressed in degrees celsius. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The two systems are similar in terms of repeatability and reproducibility, with some differences in sensibility. The data measured by the MEMS sensor appear lower than those measured by the thermocouple. After make-up, the MEMS sensor detects a progressive increase of the temperature in time whereas the thermocouple detects a decrease. We found the same evolution on the face but in a more attenuated way. These results tend to show that the devices do not measure the same phenomenon. The thermocouple appears more sensitive to the thermal response of the made-up surface whereas the MEMS sensor appears more sensitive to the heat transfers in the interface between the skin and make-up.

Bio-ingénierie

LIHOREAU T, JEUDY A, FANIAN F, GUICHARD A, SAINTHILLIER JMMAC-MARY S, HUMBERT P.
Quelles instrumentations et quelles methodes photographiques pour évaluer l’efficacité des traitements en medicine esthétique (3ème partie).
J Med Esthet Chir Dermatol, mars 2014.
 
YUAN C, WANG XM, GUICHARD A, LIHOREAU T, SOPHIE MM, LAMIA K, ARDIGO M, HUMBERT P.
Comparison of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy and Standardized Skin Surface Biopsy for three different lesions in a pityriasis folliculorum patient.
Br J Dermatol2014 [Epub ahead of print].
Abstract: Pityriasis folliculorum1(PF) is a human demodicosis proposed as “primary”, caused by the proliferation of Demodex folliculorum (D):2 it consists of very small, discrete and regularly dispersed follicular scales, involving sebaceous hair follicles, often without visible inflammation. Patients can complain about pruritus, dry, sensitive, irregular or rough skin.1 Forton et al3 report that PF is the most frequent demodicosis (54%) compared with papulopustular rosacea, and has a higher demodex density (Dd) (D=61/cm2, n=45) tested by “Standardized skin surface biopsy (SSSB)”. However, Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM) now shows promising results.4This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
 
LIHOREAU T, JEUDY A, FANIAN F, GUICHARD A, SAINTHILLIER JMMAC-MARY S, HUMBERT P.
Quelles instrumentations et quelles methodes photographiques pour évaluer l’efficacité des traitements en medicine esthétique (2ème partie).
J Med Esthet Chir Dermatol, décembre 2013.
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, MAC-MARY S,HUMBERT Ph.
Analyse du relief cutané.
EMC Cosmetol Dermatol Esthet (Elsevier Masson, Paris) : 50-140-E-10, 2011. 
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, GABARD B.
Mesure de la couleur de la peau.
EMC (Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris), Cosmétologie et Dermatologie esthétique, 50-140-F-10, 2010.
 
MAC SSAINTHILLIER JM, HUMBERT P.
Techniques d’évaluation de l’efficacité des produits de comblement.
In: PONS-GUIRAUD A, BUI P, eds. L'art du comblement et de la volumétrie en esthétique. Paris : Arnette, 2009. p247.
 
PETITJEAN A, HUMBERT P, MAC-MARY SSAINTHILLIER JM. Skin Radiance Measurement. In: Handbool of Cosmetic Science and Technology. Third Edition. Barel AO, Paye M, Maibach HI (Eds), New York : Edition Informa healthcare 2009 : pp. 407-414
 
ELKHYAT A, MAC-MARY S, HUMBERT P. Skin wettability and friction. In: Handbool of Cosmetic Science and Technology. Third Edition. Barel AO, Paye M, Maibach HI (Eds), New York : Edition Informa healthcare 2009 : pp. 427-436.
 
FOTOH C, ELKHYAT A, MAC SSAINTHILLIER JM, HUMBERT P. Cutaneous differences between Black, African or Caribbean Mixed-race and Caucasian women: biometrological approach of the hydrolipidic film. Skin Res Technol 2008; 14 : 327-35.
Abstract: Studies about the adaptation of ethnic types of skin to an environment radically different from their original environment are rarely found in the literature. We have evaluated the differences in the skin surface properties of three ethnic groups: Black, African or Caribbean Mixed-race and Caucasian women living in defined climatic conditions. Biometrological evaluations of barrier function were made by measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and skin dryness. To approach the skin protective coating we evaluated cutaneous lipid index (LI), cutaneous pH, skin frictional properties and skin wettability. The TEWL, cutaneous hydration, dryness and LI show no significant difference. Volunteers were given a self-assessment questionnaire regarding their hygiene and cosmetic practices. The results show that 100% of Black and 92% of African or Caribbean Mixed-race women use a hydrating product daily vs. only 16% of Caucasian women. They justify this practice by the 'dry skin' sensation that they feel if they do not use a moisturizer. We tried to assess objectively to the protective coating surface of the human skin: the hydrolipidic cutaneous film, by measurements of pH, frictional properties and wettability which show significant differences. We may suppose that the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance of the skin in these three ethnic groups is different. To interpret these results as accurately as possible, it would be interesting, in future investigations on the ethnic types of skin, to evaluate the sweat secretion, and to analyse each element of the sebaceous secretions quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
 
RANC H, ELKHYAT A, SERVAIS C, MAC-MARY S, LAUNAY B, HUMBERT P.
Friction coefficient and wettability of oral mucosal tissue: changes induced by a salivary layer.Colloids Surf A: Physicochem Engin Aspects 2006 ; 276 : 155-161.
Abstract: The friction coefficient, the wettability and the surface free energy of lingual mucosa while deprived of its natural removable salivary layer were evaluated ex vivo and the influence of a salivary coating on these characteristics assessed. Piglet tongue was used as support for the experiments due to its known similarities with human tongue and the availability of a large number of specimens. Whole stimulated saliva (fresh human saliva) was collected and used as such. The friction and wettability properties of the oral mucosal tissue were tested before and after organic salivary layer formation using devices developed to characterise human skin properties. Tongue surface wettability was determined by advancing contact angle measurements. Distilled water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol were used as probe liquids. Under experimental conditions, the tongue surface has a hydrophobic tendency and is weakly polar. When coated with a salivary layer, the surface of the tongue becomes significantly more hydrophilic. Salivary coatings increase the total surface free energy of the dorsal surface of the tongue and at the same time impart a more basic character. Moreover, the presence of salivary layers reduces the dynamic coefficient of friction by a factor of 1.6, underlying the lubricant function of saliva. In conclusion, friction and wetting properties of tongue surface provide valuable insight into how the tongue interacts with other surfaces as a function of the coating.
 
PETITJEAN A, AMBRUSTER V, TROLARD B, SAINTHILLIER JM, SANDOZ P, CLOSS B, MAC-MARY S, GHARBI T, HUMBERT P.
Approche optique de la caractérisation de l’éclat du teint.
In : Actualités en Ingénierie Cutanée 2006. Dir. E. Uhoda, M. Paye, GE Piérard, Ed ESKA, vol 4 : 133-138.
 
BOURDENET C, PETITJEAN A, MAC-MARY S, MURET P, HUMBERT Ph.
Effets de différentes façons de mesurer l’élasticité cutanée par le Torquemètre®. 
In : UHODA E, PAYE M, PIERARD GE, dirs. Actualités en ingénierie cutanée. Vol. 4. Paris : ESKA, 2006 : 209-13. 
 
ROHMER E, MAC-MARY S, SAINTHILLIER JM, MARSAUT D, GHARBI T, HUMBERT Ph.
Cellulite et projection de franges. 
In : UHODA E, PAYE M, PIERARD GE, dirs. Actualités en ingénierie cutanée. Vol. 4. Paris : ESKA, 2006 : 275-8.

Photographie numérique

SAINTHILLIER JMMAC-MARY S, LIHOREAU T, JEUDY A, HUMBERT Ph.
Recherche de méthodes et d’outils permettant d’évaluer l’efficacité des traitements de médecine esthétique.
J Med Esthet Chir Dermatol2013; 40 : 141-60.
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, MAC-MARY S, HUMBERT Ph.
La photographie numérique:  un outil scientifique. Académie de dermatologie esthétique et correctrice, Besançon, 21-23 octobre 2009.
Ann Dermatol Venereol2009 ; 136 (suppl 6) : S280-6.
Abstract: The remarkable development of digital photography has been possible thanks to joint advances in computer science and photography processing and retouching software. The scientific use of photography is now possible as long as its intrinsic limits are comprehended, particularly in the very specific time-limited structure of clinical trials. We list the two main limits inherent to this method: geometrical calibration and colorimetric calibration. These limitations are illustrated by numerous images used in our practice in Besançon during the last decade.
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, MAC-MARY S, HUMBERT Ph.
Analyses et représentations des rides par imagerie 2D. Académie de dermatologie esthétique et correctrice, Besançon, 21-23 octobre 2009.
Ann Dermatol Venereol2009 ; 136 (suppl 6) : S273-9.
Abstract: In clinical evaluation, digital photography is a valuable low-cost and easy to use tool to illustrate assessments; hence the temptation to use it for analysis purposes, particularly in the assessment of facial wrinkles (forehead wrinkles, crow's feet). We review different methods to quantify the volume from 2D images, most of them directly adapted from algorithms initially developed in 3D profilometry. The 3D representation of these photographs is also detailed using several examples. Finally, the limits and drawbacks of this 3D “pseudo quantification” are listed and compared with those usually found in classic profilometry.
 
SAINTHILLIER JMMAC-MARY STARRIT C, MERMET P, CREIDI E, HUMBERT P.
Intérêt du recalage pour le traitement des images dermo-cosmétiques (poster).
6ème Colloque de la Société Francophone d’Ingéniérie Cutanée, Lyon, 21-22 juin 2006.
Abstract : Introduction : Dans une évaluation, il est capital de garantir une homogénéité dans la qualité des images. Cette garantie passe par un descriptif complet des conditions d’acquisition où seront précisés le positionnement du volontaire, l’éclairage, le matériel photographique utilisé et ses réglages. Malgré toutes ces précautions, des variations résiduelles demeurent inévitables. Des procédures de recalage ont ainsi été conçues pour corriger ces variations et pour les caractériser avec le plus de précision possible.Méthode : Le recalage est un ensemble d’opérations géométriques consistant à superposer 2 images ou plus, en alignant une image à transformer sur une image de référence. Le recalage comprend 3 étapes : 1) sélection manuelle de paires de points 2) mise en correspondance de ces points et création d’une transformation géométrique 3) application de cette transformation sur l’image (Figure 1). Ces opérations permettent de corriger une translation bidimensionnelle (variations horizontales ou verticales de la position du volontaire), une rotation ou une homothétie (variations de distance entre le volontaire et le capteur).Objectif: Une fois les images correctement recalées, il devient possible d’en extraire des paramètres quantitatifs (aire, volume, couleur …). Plusieurs applications ont déjà été réalisées dans ce sens : analyse du relief de la patte d’oie, de la ride du front, quantification de l’ovale du visage. Ce repositionnement peut également servir à constituer un morphing représentant dans le temps les effets successifs d’un traitement, ou le passage d’un « avant » vers un « après ».Perspectives : Ce type de traitement géométrique permet d’envisager la réexploitation d’images cantonnées initialement à une analyse qualitative. Cette méthode générique a aussi l’avantage de pouvoir réunir des images issues de capteurs différents (recalage d’une surface 3D et d’une photographie 2D). Elle peut  s’adapter simplement à la plupart des techniques d’imagerie dermatologique, quelles soient numériques ou analogiques.
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, ELKHYAT A, MAC-MARY S, GHARBI T, HUMBERT Ph. Quantification de la transpiration par analyse d’image. 
In : UHODA E, PAYE M, PIERARD GE, dirs. Actualités en ingénierie cutanée. Vol. 4. Paris: ESKA, 2006 : 93-8.

Microcirculation

SAINTHILLIER JM,MAC S, HUMBERT Ph.
Assessment of rosacea by image processing and neural network.
Expert Rev Dermatol 2007, 2 : 277-82.
Abstract: Color measurements (L*a*b* measures), standardized photographs or scoring scales are widely used to study rosacea. However, quantification methods involving the direct processing of images are not currently available, in particular with images of the microcirculatory network provided by videocapillaroscopy. This article describes a new image analysis method that is able to learn and quantify the extent and intensity of the rosacea. Images are taken of the cheekbone using a videocapillarospope with a ×50 magnification, which corresponds to an investigation area of approximately 27 mm2. The images obtained by this technique show mottling of more or less intense redness. Our system is based on an interactive approach where the investigator selects the zones affected by rosacea on the image (mottling), as well as the zones without signal (nonrosacea artefacts, e.g., white background). A neural filtering (linear perceptron) classifies these selections and generalizes them to other images. An automatic thresholding is applied to the neural restitution and permits us to compute the total surface of rosacea, as well as the number of distinct areas of rosacea. The neural filtering process detects the limits of the rosacea areas precisely and avoids the light areas without signal. The algorithm is implemented in software (Capilab Toolbox®) that allows us to carry out multicentric studies using various processing systems with different colorimetric characteristics.
 
HUMBERT Ph, GHARBI T, SAINTHILLIER JM, DEGOUY A, CREIDI P, MAC-MARY S, MONTASTIER C, BOULOC A.
Skin radiance: a videocapillaroscopic approach : effect of manganese gluconate topical application on microcirculation.
IX International Congress of Dermatology, Beijing (China), 19-22 May, 2004. (Poster pièce jointe)
 
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, MAC-MARY S, HUMBERT P.
Characterization and quantification of microcirculation in vivo by videocapillaroscopy
[Caractérisation et quantification de la microcirculation in vivo par vidéocapillaroscopie]
Nouv Dermatol 2005 ; 24 : 28-30.
Abstract: Microvasculature of the skin and the dynamics of the microcirculation can readily be studied by the technique of videocapillaroscopy. The goal of this technique is to visualize the skin capillary circulation easily and directly. Indeed, this information is irreplaceable to study the physiology and physiopathology of the skin capillary circulation efficiently. The videocapillaroscopy technique is presented together with different methods to study the capillary structure of the skin. Different architectural frameworks of skin capillary network are described such as a parallel arrangement with regular or irregular meshes or a perpendicular arrangement with regular or irregular dot lines. These aspects may vary according to the patients sex and age. Image processing analysis combining morphology, statistics, geometry and neural network detection allows to quantify the microcirculation and to follow its evolution. These techniques can therefore be used to follow up different conditions in dermatology and cosmetology. The determination of structural or dynamic changes in the cutaneous microcirculation belongs to the non-invasive techniques of the biometrological domain. Thus, every capillary modification due to topical cosmetic products or chemical agents can be observed. In pathology, numerous conditions can be better examined with this system. Associated with the potential of numerical image analysis, capillaroscopy techniques will probably extend their application fields to the assessment of the influence of arterial and venous diseases on the skin nutritional circulation.
 
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, GHARBI T, MURET P, HUMBERT P
Skin capillary network recognition and analysis by means of neural algorithms.
Skin Res Technol 2005 ; 11 : 9-16.
Abstract: The intra-dermal capillary network can be easily assessed by a computerized videomicroscope system. Nevertheless, finding capillary loops automatically in an image is a difficult yet important first step in order to achieve microcirculation analysis. METHODS: A detection system was tested by combining videocapillaroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA). Our goal was to build a generic detector of capillary associated with a retinally connected neural network filter. The filter examines small windows of an image, and decides with this detector whether each window contains a capillary or not. RESULTS: Comparisons with manual detections showed that the system has a detection rate of 82% on test set A containing 100 good-quality images of the scalp. A detection rate of 65% was obtained on test set B containing 50 images with noisy background and large artifacts. The performance was increased by a color detector with a detection rate of 71% on the last test. These results correspond to a false detection rate lower than or equal to 10%. CONCLUSION: This neural filter system is capable of real-time processing; it recognizes capillaries anywhere in an image, and operates successfully under wide range of lighting and noisy conditions.
 
SAINTHILLIER JM,DEGOUY A, GHARBI T, PIERALLI C, HUMBERT P
Geometrical capillary network analysis.
Skin Res Technol 2003 ; 9 : 312-20.
Abstract: Skin microcirculation, especially the superficial network, can be assessed by a computer capillary video microscope system. The study of morphology and dynamics of microcirculation must include all dynamic and cooperative processes between the capillaries. For characterizing capillary ensembles, the statistical and geometrical properties of the network need to be explored. METHODS: The microvaculature of the skin and the microcirculation were investigated by combining videocapillaroscopy (VCP) and image processing techniques based on computational geometry and graph theory. Our goal was to characterize the capillary network in noisy pictures of the scalp. Different geometric methods were developed, based on proximity parameters (distance and surface) in order to circumscribe and construct this network. RESULTS: By studying the distribution of these parameters, extreme values or outliers, which usually correspond to artifact subregions in the pictures could be eliminated. Different algorithms were developed and has been implemented in an image processing software (Capilab Toolbox). CONCLUSION: This computerized system is capable of real-time processings, increasing the quality of videocapillaroscope images and minimizing the disturbance of artifacts. The algorithms presented here are easy to implement and can process any kind of images of the skin, even in the scalp. In association with an example-based detection system, this method can be generalized to other stimuli in the same conditions.
 
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, MAC-MARY S, CREIDI P, MSIKA P, CHADOUTAUD B,HUMBERT P.
Comparative assessment by colorimetry and videocapillaroscopy of the efficacy of a cream composed of lupin peptide and soya isoflavones on rosacea
[Évaluation comparative par colorimétrie et vidéocapillaroscopie de l’efficacité d’une crème composée de peptide de lupin et d’isoflavones de soja sur l’érythrocouperose]
Nouv Dermatol 2005 ; 24 : 99-104.
Abstract: Recent progresses have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of rosacea. Vascular phenomena play a key role with the active involvement of angiogenic factors. Telangiectasia represent venular dilatations with dermal oedema. The tested product contains two new molecules used in the treatment of rosacea: lupine peptides, which regulate the activity of matrix metalloproteases and inflammatory cytokines, and genistein, an anti-angiogenic molecule which modulates microcapillary proliferation. In this double-blind randomized study, 40 women with erythemato-telangiectasia rosacea were enrolled. They applied on their face, twice a day for 3 months, either the product (verum) or its excipient (placebo). Clinical scoring was carried out at days 0,45 and 90. The microcirculation was investigated by combining videocapillaroscopy (VCP) and neural image processing (Capilab Toolbox®). Chromametry and macrophotos were also performed on days 0 and 90. The product and its excipient were statistically efficient for reducing clinical erythrosis and capillaries visibility. The chromametric values of luminance (L) and redness (a) decreased also. Capillaroscopy’s results, showed an efficiency statistically higher of the verum versus placebo (p = 0.0195). In conclusion, this cosmetic product is a good option for topical treatment of erythrosis especially through the activity of lupine peptide and genistein on the dysfunction of microcapillaries. © Nouv. Dennatol. 2005.

Hydratation

ELKHYAT A, FANIAN F, MAC-MARY S, GUICHARD A, LIHOREAU T, JEUDY A, HUMBERT P. Skin Wettability and Friction. In: Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology. Fourth Edition. Barel AO, Paye M, Maibach HI (Eds), New York : Edition Informa healthcare 2014 : pp. 337-344.
 
CALZOLARI L, KASTLER A, MAC-MARY S, HUMBERT P, KASTLER B, AUBRY S. 3T-MRI analysis of epidermis and dermis moisturizing using the T2-mapping sequence. Skin Res Technol 2013; 19:152-154.
 
MAC-MARY SSAINTHILLIER JM, HUMBERT Ph. Mesure de la xérose et de la desquamation. EMC (Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris), Cosmétologie et Dermatologie esthétique, 50-140-B-10, 2011.
 
 
TARRIT C,MAC-MARY S. Quels moyens pour lutter contre la sécheresse cutanée ? Dermatologie Pratique 2010 ; 341 : 11-12
La peau sèche ou xérose, est une peau qui, par manque d’eau, provoque des sensations désagréables (tiraillement, démangeaisons, etc.) et se présente sous la forme d’une peau rêche, terne, parfois squameuse voire fissurée et ayant perdu de sa flexibilité.
 
MAC-MARY SSAINTHILLIER JM. Peau sensible et climat. Medical Staff Dermatologie (Eds La Roche Posay) 2011 ; 81 : 6-8
 
PAYE M, MAC-MARY S, ELKHYAT A, TARRIT C, MERMET P, HUMBERT P.
Use of reviscometer for measuring cosmetic-induced skin surface effects.
Skin Res Technol2007 ; 13 : 343-9.
Abstract:The Reviscometer RVM600 that measures resonance running time (RRT) has been shown to be inversely related to the skin stiffness. However, very few publications describe the use of this instrument for testing the effect of cosmetic products. Slight xerotic skin condition was induced by using an alkaline soap for 1 week. Skin has then been rehydrated with a lotion or further dehydrated and dried with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Skin condition at the different stages of the study was evaluated by visual assessment for dryness and redness and by non-invasive methods (Corneometer, Cutometer, Reviscometer, Evaporimeter and squamometry). All methods showed highly significant changes after the slight drying phase with the soap usage. They illustrated skin repair after lotion treatment and further skin impairment after SLS application. Nevertheless, the Reviscometer was able to better statistically discriminate between the treatments (water, lotion, SLS) than the Cutometer . Measurement of the RRT along the transversal axis of the forearms was the most sensitive for differentiating between normal and dry skin and between the treatments on the basis of skin mechanical properties. The Reviscometer RVM600 is a sensitive instrument able to detect slight skin surface effect of cosmetics. Combined with published literature on the interpretation of RRT measurements on polymeric gel or in different skin conditions (elderly skin and photoaged skin), the Reviscometer looks to be a recommendable instrument to measure slight changes in SC stiffness/suppleness induced by cosmetic products.
 
VAVROVA K, HRABALEK A, MAC-MARY S, HUMBERT Ph, MURET P.
Ceramide analogue 14S24 selectively recovers perturbed human skin barrier.
Br J Dermatol2007, 157 : 704-12.
Abstract:Topical ceramide application is an effective therapeutic approach in skin disorders with disturbed barrier function, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. To evaluate ceramide analogue N-tetracosanoyl-(l)-serine tetradecyl ester (14S24) using a novel ex vivo model. Freshly excised human skin was disrupted by lipid extraction, tape stripping and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) treatment. Barrier perturbation was evaluated by the measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and the penetration of model compound, theophylline (TH), assessed by microdialysis. The effect of topical 5% 14S24 was compared with a commercial formulation containing a skin lipid mixture (LR) and control formulation with no skin lipids (L). Both LR and 14S24 produced significant recovery of TEWL and TH penetration in extracted and tape-stripped skin with 14S24 being significantly more effective. In SLS-treated skin, 14S24 decreased TEWL but not TH penetration; LR was inactive. L improved skin hydration but not barrier characteristics. Weak correlation between TEWL and TH penetration was observed in extracted and tape-stripped skin but not in SLS-treated skin. Cutaneous microdialysis can serve as a useful tool for the evaluation of skin barrier recovery by topical formulations ex vivo whereas TEWL may not be an appropriate measure of skin barrier function in such studies. The excellent barrier repair activity of 14S24 could be beneficial in skin disorders with ceramide deficiency.
 
MAC-MARY SSAINTHILLIER JM, ELKHYAT A, CREIDI P, MANISSIER P, MONTASTIER C, HEIDET-HOMMEAU V, HUMBERT P
Relevance of biometrological methods to demonstrate the efficiency of a nutritional supplementation in dry skin (poster).
15th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology - EADV Rhodes (Grèce), 4-8 octobre 2006.
 
MAC-MARY S, SAINTHILLIER JM, DELVIGNE V, HUMBERT P.
Dry skin and environment (poster pièce jointe).
4th EADV Spring Symposium, “Skin and Climate”, Lapland (Finlande), 9-12 Février 2006.
Abstract: Dry skin is estimated to be present in about 75&percnt; of people aged 75 and over. It has been known for many years that this condition is more frequent in winter, in cold and dry weather conditions. With technological progress, people are now mostly exposed to multiple indoor and outdoor pollutants and environment parameters (air-conditioning, chemicals, noise) which can interact which each other and affect human health, and particularly the skin. All these phenomena are intensified with skin aging and can be aggravated by seasons, the way of life, habits (nutrition, dust, allergens, air-conditioning, noise, smoking, unadapted cosmetic use, some treatments) and working conditions (visual display unit, stress). In fact, this environment can be defined as the whole ensemble of external factors which could have an influence on a subject’s health. This means material (climate, geography), organical (biosphere, fauna, flora), physicocultural (techniques), biocultural (nutritional habits, hygiene, medical use) and psychocultural (stress) elements. The aim of this article is to make a review in order to check which of these elements have a major impact on dry skin, in particular among seasons, working/living conditions and cosmetic or hygienic products.
 
MAC-MARY S, CREIDI P, MARSAUT D, COURDEROT-MASUYER C, COCHET V, GHARBI T, GUIDICELLI-ARRANZ D, TONDU F, HUMBERT Ph
Assessment of effects of an additional dietary natural mineral water uptake on skin hydration in healthy subjects by dynamic barrier function measurements and clinic scoring.
Skin Res Technol2006 ; 12 : 199-205
Abstract: The skin protects the body’s organs and tissues from damage and physical, chemical and bacteriological injuries. It also prevents the transcutaneous loss of water. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of additional dietary natural mineral water uptake on skin hydration and cutaneous well-being in subjects with dry skin. Methods: Eighty subjects (44 women and 36 males, mean age 56 ± 5.6 years) were included in the study, randomised per forearm and stratified by gender. Skin surface hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sorption-desorption test, skin colour, thickness and micro-relief were evaluated on the forearms. Clinical scoring of dryness, roughness and elasticity was performed by a dermatologist. Results: An improvement of skin hydration was observed after additional water uptake, statistically modifying the hydration level as well as TEWL, the water-binding capacity of the uppermost layers of the stratum corneum. Improvements of softness, smoothness and skin-moisturising effect were perceived by healthy subjects, and skin micro-relief was improved. Conclusion: We suggest that natural mineral water supplementation may be used in order to improve the hydration of skin dryness as a complementary cosmetic approach. Copyright © Blackwell Munksgaard 2006.
 
 
ELKHYAT A, COURDEROT-MASUYER C, MAC-MARY S, COURAU S, HUMBERT Ph.
Assessment of spray application of St Gervais® water effectson skin wettability by contact angle measurement comparison with bi-distilled water.
Skin Res Technol2004 ; 10 : 283-6.
Abstract:The skin is responsible for protecting the body from physical, chemical and microbial injuries. The stratum corneum is the top layer of the epidermis and it plays a key role in helping to contain moisture. When the skin becomes damaged, its ability to perform these functions is compromised. Dry skin is a common form of skin damage.Contact angle 0 between a surface and water is a good indicator of hydrophobic or hydrophilic tendency of surfaces. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of spray application of an isotonic mineral water (Saint GERVAIS water) on the hydrophobic tendency of dry skin and to compare spreading of both types of water on the skin through 0 measurement of each water drop on the skin before and after mineral spray application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contact angles theta between skin surface and the two types of water (bidistilled and mineral water) were measured before and after application of mineral water by a system allowing the measurement of theta in vivo and in vitro. The cutaneous hydration, the temperature and pH were also measured before and after mineral water application. RESULTS: As for the application of mineral water, the cutaneous pH significantly increased so the strong skin acidity decreased. The cutaneous temperature was modified (a decrease of 2 degrees C was noted) and the cutaneous hydration was also increased (+47AU). The hydro-phobic tendency of the dry skin tested in this study was strongly decreased after mineral water application. This parameter was illustrated by a decrease of contact angle theta value. CONCLUSION: Saint GERVAIS water application allowed a regulation of skin pH, a fresh sensation on the skin and an increase in the cutaneous hydration. Moreover, the contact angle measurement with bidistilled water illustrated the increased wettability of the skin.
 
 
MAC-MARY S, SAINTHILLIER JMHUMBERT P.
Dry skin and the environment
Exogenous Dermatol2004 ; 3 : 72-80.
Abstract: Dry skin is estimated to be present in about 75% of people aged 75 and over. It has been known for many years that this condition is more frequent in winter, in cold and dry weather conditions. With technological progress, people are now mostly exposed to multiple indoor and outdoor pollutants and environment parameters (air-conditioning, chemicals, noise) which can interact which each other and affect human health, and particularly the skin. All these phenomena are intensified with skin aging and can be aggravated by seasons, the way of life, habits (nutrition, dust, allergens, air-conditioning, noise, smoking, unadapted cosmetic use, some treatments) and working conditions (visual display unit, stress). In fact, this environment can be defined as the whole ensemble of external factors which could have an influence on a subject’s health. This means material (climate, geography), organical (biosphere, fauna, flora), physicocultural (techniques), biocultural (nutritional habits, hygiene, medical use) and psychocultural (stress) elements. The aim of this article is to make a review in order to check which of these elements have a major impact on dry skin, in particular among seasons, working/living conditions and cosmetic or hygienic products.
 
AGACHE P, MARY S, MURET P, MATTA AM, HUMBERT P
Assessment of the water content of the stratum corneum using a sorption-desorption test.
Dermatology2001 ; 202 : 308-313.
Abstract:Various instruments based on electrical properties of the skin are currently used to assess the stratum corneum (SC) hydration state or water holding capacity. However, no direct relation with the quantity of water measured is provided. The objective of the present study was to calibrate the Corneometer, a device displaying electrical-capacitance-related values (which reflect the skin hydration state), and the amount and behaviour of the water taken up by the outer part of the SC during a sorption-desorption test. METHODS: The experiment was performed on the ventral forearms of 20 healthy volunteers after a rest in an environmentally controlled room. Corneometer and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were measured at intervals over the desorption process. The areas under the TEWL-versus-time curve provided the absolute amounts of residual sorbed water. RESULTS: The decrease kinetics of both signals after subtraction of prehydration values were very similar and bi-exponential, both showing a rapid, then a slower phase. The absolute amount of water taken up by the SC (hygroscopicity) and the two desorption rates were obtained. The Corneometer values were mono-exponentially related to the amount of water remaining within the SC. This allowed the in vivo calibration of the Corneometer in terms of absolute amount of water over the desorption range. CONCLUSION: The method may be used to calibrate in vivo other electrical devices aimed at assessing SC hydration during a sorption-desorption test. It may also provide new ways to measure SC water uptake and water holding capacity following application of products. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

Vieillissement

SAINTHILLIER JM, MAC-MARY S, MONNIER D, MERMET P, TARRIT C, MUDRY M, MUDRY C, HUMBERT Ph.
Exploratory study of the typology of various grades of mature skin,
Skin Re Technol, 2013, 19(1).

Abstract:BACKGROUND: Post-menopausal skin aging has intrinsic as well as extrinsic origins, and this process induces important disparities of appearance and feeling within an age range. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify 3 grades of maturity of the facial skin of menopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred and fifty women aged between 50 and 80 (63 ± 7 years) were enrolled. The investigations combined clinical scoring, biometrological measurements (corneometry, cutometry, digital photography, and 3D analysis by fringe projection), and questionnaires. Images elaborated from photographs and 3D views were scored by 2 investigators to classify the subjects according to 3 grades of skin maturity. RESULTS: STEPDISC statistical analysis revealed that the most relevant variables to differentiate the maturity grades were elastosis, wrinkles on the cheeks, wrinkles on the upper lip, roughness, spots, and elasticity. CONCLUSION: The age does not reveal the degree of maturity of mature skin. Three grades of skin maturity in menopausal women, based on clinical and physiological patterns, have been differentiated in this study. Cosmetic treatments specifically adapted to the needs of menopausal women can therefore be developed.
 
MAC-MARY S, SAINTHILLIER JM. 
Better understanding children's skin.
Expression cosmétique 2013, 21, 90-94.
 
MAC-MARY S, VIENNET C.
Vieillissement cutané (visible) et dommages cellulaires (invisibles).
Dermatologie Pratique2012 ; 361: 2-3
 
Mac-MaryS, Sainthillier JM, Jeudy A, Sladen C, Williams C, Bell M, HumbertP.
Assessment of the UVA cumulative exposure through the study of asymmetrical facial damage. Clinical Interventions in Aging 2010 ; 5 : 277-284
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Published studies assessing whether asymmetrical facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology report only clinical observations. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA) exposure through a window. METHODS: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetrical signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer, mechanical properties with Cutometer, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analysis). RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance. DISCUSSION: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.
 
HAFTEK M, MAC-MARY S, LE BITOUX MA, CREIDI P, SEITE S, ROUGIER A, HUMBERT P.
Clinical, Biometric and structural evaluation of the long-term effects of a topical treatment with ascorbic acid and madecassosside in photoaged human skin.
Exp Dermatol2008;17:946-52.
Abstract:Skin ageing is a complex process determined by the genetic endowment of individual and environmental factors, such as sun exposure. The effects of skin ageing are mostly encountered in the superficial dermis and in the epidermis. We have previously demonstrated in vivo the beneficial effect of a topically applied formula of 5% vitamin C in the treatment of skin ageing. Another active compound, madecassoside extracted from Centella asiatica, known to induce collagen expression and/or to modulate inflammatory mediators, might thus prevent and correct some signs of ageing. A randomized double-blind study was carried out on photoaged skin of 20 female volunteers to investigate the effects of topically applied 5% vitamin C and 0.1% madecassoside on the clinical, biophysical and structural skin properties. After 6 months of treatment, we observed a significant improvement of the clinical score for deep and superficial wrinkles, suppleness, firmness, roughness and skin hydration. These results were corroborated by measurements of skin elasticity and semi-quantitative histological assessment of the elastic fibre network in the papillary dermis. Two-thirds of the subjects showed an improvement. The re-appearance of a normally structured elastic fibre network was observed. Our results revealed a functional and structural remodelling of chronically sun-damaged skin.
 
LI L, MAC-MARY SSAINTHILLIER JM, GHARBI T, DEGOUY A, NOUVEAU S, DE LACHARRIERE,  HUMBERT P
Age related-changes of the cutaneous microcirculation in vivo.
Gerontol 2006 ; 52 : 142-53.
Abstract:The architectural frameworks of the skin microcirculation are rather complex and change continuously with aging. But these changes are yet poorly documented in vivo. OBJECTIVES: Using non-invasive methods belonging to the field of biometrology, the study aimed to investigate quantitatively the changes of the cutaneous microvasculature in different anatomic sites with age. METHODS: Measurements were performed on crow’s feet, forehead, volar forearm and dorsum of hand in 50 women (aged 20-74 years who consisted of 10 probands in each live decades). The superficial vascular plexus was scanned by videocapillaroscopy and assessed with the software Capilab Toolbox. The subpapillary vascular plexus was explored with laser Doppler flowmetry. The skin color a* was analyzed by chromametry. RESULTS: A marked site and age effect on the skin microcirculation has been demonstrated. The density of capillary loops in the eldest group decreased by about 40-70% compared with the youngest group whereas the vascular length increased by 35-156%. The capillary density in the back of the hand was 4 times higher than in the crow’s feet. The vascular length in the crow’s feet was 3 times longer than in the back of the hand. Both blood flow and skin redness (a*) increased also with age. CONCLUSION: Both morphology and quantification of the cutaneous microvasculature showed changes with site and age. Videocapillaroscopy associated to an image processing and laser Doppler flowmetry revealed different vascular layers. So the combination of both instruments offers an easy way to observe the architectural frameworks in vivo. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
 
 
NOUVEAU-RICHARD S, YANG Z, MAC-MARY S, LI L, BASTIEN P, TARDY I, BOUILLON C,  HUMBERT P, DE LACHARRIERE.
Skin aging: a comparison between Chinese and Europeans populations, a pilot study.
J Dermatol Sci 2005 ; 40 : 187-93. 3ème prix du jury de la CAFFCI (séminaire 2006, Chine).
Abstract:Although limited data are available, it is commonly considered that Europeans and Asians have different skin ageing features. The present studies have been carried out to evaluate the influence of age and sun-exposure on the main clinical signs of Asian skin ageing. One hundred and sixty Chinese and 160 French age-matched women (age range: 20-60 years old) were clinically examined and scored by the same dermatologist. Facial wrinkles (crow's-feet, glabella and perioral wrinkles) and pigmented spots (on face and hands) were assessed in situ and standardized photographs of the face were taken. Lifelong sun-exposure was estimated from answers to a questionnaire. Comparisons were made between 10-year age groups. Results show that, for each facial skin area, wrinkle onset is delayed by about 10 years in Chinese women as compared to French women. Facial wrinkling rate over the years is linear in French women and not linear in Chinese women who appear to experience a fast ageing process between age 40 and 50. Pigmented spot intensity is a much more important ageing sign in Chinese women (severe for 30% of women over 40) than in French women (severe for less than 8% of women, irrespective of age). These first results underline that main skin ageing features (wrinkles, spots) progress differently in the Chinese and French women we have studied. They require to be confirmed on broad multicentre studies involving larger cohorts.
 
SAINTHILLIER JM, MARSAUT D, TROLARD B, MAC-MARY S, HUMBERT P.
Skin relief by fringe projection: volume measurement and vizualisation of fillling.
15th International Meeting of the International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin–ISBS) and 2nd  Joint International Meeting of ISBS and ISSI, Philadelphie, 28 Septembre – 1er Octobre 2005.
 
 
LI L, MAC-MARY S, MARSAUT D, SAINTHILLIER JM, GHARBI T, NOUVEAU S, DE LACHARRIERE,  HUMBERT P
Relationship between age related-changes in skin microtopography and skin microcirculation.
Arch Derm Res 2005 ; 3 : 1-5.
Abstract: Skin topography and microvasculature undergo characteristic changes with age. Although several non-invasive bioengineering methods are currently available to measure them quantitatively, few publications have referred to their relationship with age in different anatomical sites. This study was carried out to observe the age-related changes of the skin topography and skin microcirculation. The microrelief was assessed with special processing software from scanning by interference fringe profilometry of silicone replicas performed on two sites (volar forearm and back of hand) on 50 female volunteers (aged 20-74 years who consisted of ten probands in each decade). The superficial vascular network of both sites was assessed by videocapillaroscopy, and the subpapillary vascular plexus was studied with laser Doppler flowmetry. Skin color, which is affected by blood flow, was observed by colorimeter. The skin roughness and the mean height between peak and valley increased with age. There were statistically significant differences between the evaluated sites. This study also shows that the capillary loops in the dermal papillae decrease but the subpapillary plexus increase with age. The interference fringe profilometry associated with videocapillaroscopy may be useful and accurate to measure the efficacy of medical or cosmetic products to delay skinaging.
 
HUMBERT P, MARY S
La peau ne compte pas son temps : elle se renouvelle de 800 à 1000 au cours d’une vie.
In : LAFAURIE M, ed. Le temps du vivant.
Paris : Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2002 : 194-201

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The Skinexigence SAS, was created by Sophie MAC February 2, 2006 in Besançon, city of art and history. After 6 years in the Besançon University Hospital Skinexigence just moved into the Bioparc building in the heart of Besançon health hub combining the companies working in the biomedical field and near the new dermatology department.

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